Controls of Exhaust Emissions

Brief Summaries of Emission Regulations in Japan

Applicable emission regulations for engines are specified by the application of the engine to be used. Those emission control measures specified and applied in Japan are summarised in the following table

Applications Stationary Large scale Stationary Small scale Non-road mobile machinery Motor Vehicles Locomotive Rail-cars Air craft Ships
Setting limits Air Pollution Control Law No (Partly the guideline is published as explained follows,) Details are described below Air Pollution Control Law No No IMO
Legislative control Specified No ditto Specified

Basically the emission regulation in Japan is specified based on Air Pollution Control Laws, which is the law to control the emissions from the business activities of factories and business establishment and by setting the emission standards from motor vehicles

Emission regulation applied for Land engine (Stationary application)

The engines to be provided in the factories and business establishments are called "stationary application". The large scale engines of stationary application are controlled its emission by Air Pollution Control Law in Japan as shown the following table. If the specified condition is fulfilled, the local governments may establish the additional requirements for the emission from stationary engines, such as the reduction of the limits and the expansion of the applicability.

Type Bore size (mm) Fuel consumption NOXlimits
gas or gasoline engine - above 35 litre / hour
converted to heavy fuel
600ppm (O2=0 %)
diesel engine at or above 400 above 50 litre / hour
converted to heavy fuel
1200ppm (O2=13 %)
less than 400 950ppm (O2=13 %)

Emission regulation to be applied for land-use non-road engines

The engines installed in a certain machinery to be used for its prime mover are controlled its exhaust emission differently by its installed application. It is because the quantity of its exhaust emissions varies depending upon the behaviour of the machineries and the regulation should be designed to follow the operation pattern in a real world.

Machineries to be installed Land-use non-road machineries Motor vehicle
Transportable (Handheld or Non-handheld) Never operated on public road May be operated on public road
19 < kW 19 ≥ kW 19 < kW 19 ≥ kW
Legislative control no no Act for NSMV no Motor Vehicles Act Motor Vehicles Act
Setting limits no no Air pollution Control Law no Air pollution Control Law Air pollution Control Law
Voluntary regulation of LEMA applied applied no applied no no

According to the definition in Motor Vehicles Act, Motor Vehicles means vehicles designed and produced for the purpose of being moved on land by an engine, which do not run on track. In this page, the engine to be used in Non-road special motor vehicles (NSMV) or in Special Motor Vehicles, other than general on-road motor vehicles, such as ordinary-sized motor vehicles, small-sized motor vehicles and mini-sized motor vehicles, and the engine to be used in transportable application, including handheld equipment and non-handheld equipment, is called "Land-use non-road mobile machinery".

Special motor vehicle is a type of motor vehicle, which may have a chance to run on public road, such as agricultural tractor and forklift truck. Non-road special motor vehicle is a type of motor vehicle, which does never run on public road, such as bull-dozer or clawer-crane. For Special motor vehicles and Non-road special motor vehicles installed the engine at or above 19 kW and less than 560 kW, the emission standards has been specified under the provision of Air Pollution Control Law and the exhaust emission from the engine to be used in Special motor vehicle is to be controlled by Motor Vehicles Act and from the engine to be used in Non-road special motor vehicle is to be controlled by Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicles, or Act for NSMV.

Among the engines to be used in transportable equipment, such as brush-cutter, chain-saw, portable generator, engine-air-compressor, or engine-welder, are not legislatively controlled for the time being by Air Pollution Control Law, Motor Vehicles Act and Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicles, or Act. If the engines used in special motor vehicle or in non-road special motor vehicle and if the engines are less than 19 kW, those engines are not also legislatively controlled by Air Pollution Control Law for the time being,

Therefore LEMA, Land Engine Manufacturers Association of Japan, has decided to introduce the voluntary emission regulation of LEMA independently and started it for SI engines less than 19 kW on 2003 and for CI engines less than 19 kW on 2006.

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