Controls of Exhaust Emissions

Laws and Regulations of Emission Controls for Land-use Non-road Engines


Last updated: Mach 28, 2013

Structure of the Legislative system of emission controls in Japan

The emission regulations enforced and applied in Japan are shown by coloured cells in the following table.

Machineries to be installed Land-use non-road machineries Motor vehicle
Transportable (Handheld or Non-handheld) Never operated on public road May be operated on public road
19 < kW 19 ≥ kW 19 < kW 19 ≥ kW
Legislative control no no Act for NSMV no Motor Vehicles Act Motor Vehicles Act
Setting limits no no Air pollution Control Law no Air pollution Control Law Air pollution Control Law
Voluntary regulation of LEMA applied applied no applied no no

Notes ;

: The colored cells show the engine, whose limits are specified based on Air Pollution Control Law and which are controlled by either "Motor Vehicles Act" or "Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicle". In the above table, the latter is abbreviated to Act for NSMV.

The emission limits for non-road mobile machineries has been specified by the Minister of the Environment under the authority of Air Pollution Control Law, as same manner as general type of motor vehicles. The limits are promulgated by the Minister of the Environment based upon the recommendation reported by the Central Environment Council (CEC), which has been established under the authority of the Basic Environment Law.

The applications of non-road engines to be regulated for the exhaust emissions are Special motor vehicles and Non-road special motor vehicles. Special motor vehicles are the types of Motor vehicles shown as follows; shovel loaders, tyre rollers, road rollers, motor graders, road stabilizers, motor scraper, rotary snow-plows, asphalt finishers, tyre dozers, motor sweepers, dumpers, wheeled hammers, wheeled breakers, fork lift trucks, fork loaders, wheeled cranes, straddle carriers, turret-type platform trucks, motor vehicles designated by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. Special motor vehicles could be specified as those motor vehicles other than Ordinary-sized motor vehicles, small-sized motor vehicles and Mini-sized motor vehicles or other than passenger car, trucks or buses.

Non-road special motor vehicles are those non-road mobile machineries, which are propelled on land by the engine installed in the vehicles, as same as special vehicles. But it differs from special motor vehicles from the fact that non-road special motor vehicles do never run on public road and used other place than on public road. The engines installed in either special motor vehicles or non-road special motor vehicles are intended to use for propelling its vehicles as well as for powering the works to be aimed by this vehicles.

When new regulation is introduced, the Ministry of the Environment is to specify the allowable limits of exhaust emissions from the engines of Special motor vehicles and Non-road special motor vehicles, referring the results of studies by the Central Environment Council and the related requirements and the technical standards for Special Motor Vehicles is to be promulgated under the authority of Motor vehicles Act and for Non-road special vehicles is to be promulgated under the authority of Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicles.

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Legislation of emission controls for land-use non-road mobile machineries


Last updated: Februry 6, 2014

The regulation based on 2003 report of CEC

The Central Environment Council (CEC) has submitted the report of its study on the introduction of the emission regulation for Special motor vehicles and Non-road special motor vehicles installed the diesel engines fuelled by diesel fuel and spark ignited engines fuelled by gasoline and LPG with power from 19 kW to 560 kW to the Minister of the Environment on June 2003. Based on this report, the Announcement on the allowable limits of exhaust emissions from those engines has been promulgated on March 2006 by Ministry of the Environment.

As to the technical issues of the regulation, the amendment of Announcement that prescribes details of safety regulations for road vehicles has been promulgated under the authority of Road Vehicles Act on September 2003 and "Measurement procedure for 8-mode exhaust emission from special motor vehicles fuelled by diesel fuel", which has been prepared as the attachment 43. of this Announcement, has been newly specified. By this the emission regulation for the engines for special motor vehicles has been introduced as specified as the following table.

Power ranges (kW) and test mode Applied from Limits (g/kWh) diesel smoke
(m-1)
CO HC NOX PM
Diesel powered special vehicles and non-road special vehicles (Steady 8-mode) at or above 19 kW, and less than 37 kW 1. Oct. 2007 5 1 6 0.4 40 %
at or above 37 kW, and less than 56 kW 1. Oct. 2008 5 0.7 4 0.3 35 %
at or above 56 kW, and less than 75 kW 1. Oct. 2008 5 0.7 4 0.25 30 %
at or above 75 kW, and less than 130 kW 1. Oct. 2007 5 0.4 3.6 0.2 25 %
at or above 130 kW, and less than 560 kW 1. Oct. 2006 3.5 0.4 3.6 0.17 25 %
The implementation of the regulation for diesel powered non-road special motor vehicles and for non-road special motor vehicles fuelled by gasoline and LPG have been promulgated on March 2006. Regarding to the technical regulation of those non-road special vehicles are specified to use also the Attachment 103 for non-road special motor vehicles fuelled by gasoline and LPG and to use also the Attachment 43 for diesel powered non-road special vehicles. And the details of the requirements of the regulation are almost same as those for special motor vehicles regulation.
Power ranges (kW) and test mode Applied from Limits (g/kWh)
CO HC NOX
Special vehicles and non-road special vehicles fuelled by gasoline or LPG (Steady 7-mode) at or above 130 kW, and less than 560 kW 1. Oct. 2007 20 0.6 0.6

The regulation based on 2008 report of CEC (To be applicable from 2011 to 2013)

Regarding to recommendation reported by the Central Environment Council (CEC) on January 2008 on the emission standards for special motor vehicles and non-road special motor vehicles powered by diesel engine from 19 kW to 560 kW, the part of the recommendation, which is to be introduced from 2011 to 2013, has been promulgated by the Announcement on the allowable limits of exhaust emissions on March 2010. In this Report, the limit for hydrocarbon was modified to non-methane hydrocarbon and the transient test mode was added to steady 8-mode.

As to the technical regulation, the "Announcement that prescribes details of safety regulations for road vehicles" has been amended on March 2010 by introducing the fully revised Attachment 43 on "Measurement procedure for exhaust emission of diesel powered special motor vehicle"

According the policy of Japan shown by the Central Environment Council on 2005, it is desirable that international harmonization of standards be promoted wherever possible within a scope which does not hinder the environmental preservation of Japan and therefore an active contribution should be made to the international harmonization of standards for the emission testing methods, which are developed or currently underway at the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE/WP29), and efforts should be made to promote international harmonization of testing standards to the greatest degree possible. The fully revised Attachment 43 has completely introduced the Global Technical Regulation No.11, which was adopted on March 2010 by WP.29 of UN-ECE. This is the first introduction of Global Technical Regulation into the Japanese regulation.

The amendment of the "Announcement that prescribes details of safety regulations for road vehicles", which was promulgated simultaneously on March 2010 with the amendment of the " Announcement stipulating items necessary for arranging relationship of application of provisions of chapter 2 and 3 of safety regulations for road vehicles"", has implemented the next phase regulation for diesel special motor vehicles and the promulgation of the amendment for "Announcement stipulating items necessary for the emission regulation of non-road special motor vehicles" on March 2010 has implemented the next regulation for diesel non-road special vehicles as follows.

Power ranges (kW) and test mode Applied from Limits (g/kWh) diesel smoke
CO NMHC NOX PM
Diesel powered special vehicles and non-road special vehicles (Steady 8-mode and transient NRTC cycle) at or above 19 kW, and less than 37 kW 1. Oct. 2013 5 0.7 4 0.03 25 %
at or above 37 kW, and less than 56 kW 1. Oct. 2013 5 0.7 4 0.025 25 %
at or above 56 kW, and less than 75 kW 1. Oct. 2012 5 0.19 3.3 0.02 25 %
at or above 75 kW, and less than 130 kW 1. Oct. 2012 5 0.19 3.3 0.02 25 %
at or above 130 kW, and less than 560 kW 1. Oct. 2011 3.5 0.19 2 0.02 25 %

The regulation based on 2008 report of CEC (To be applicable from 2014, 2015 and 2016)

In addition to the regulations to be introduced from 2011 to 2013, the Central Environment Council has recommended to introduce the new emission limits for the next regulation for diesel powered special motor vehicles and non-road special motor vehicles, which is to be introduced from 2014 to 2015 by its report to the Minister of the Environment on January 2008.On August 2012, CEC has also reported its recommendation, in which RMC( Ramped Modal Cycle( is to be added as option of the steady test cycle to current discrete test cycle, equivalent to ISO C1, and blow by gas is not to be emitted into the environmental air or has to be measured the exhaust emission with blow-by gas, if it is not closed.

Based on those report, the amendments of "Announcement stipulating items necessary for arranging relationship of application of provisions of chapter 2 and 3 of safety regulations for road vehicles" as well as "Announcement stipulating items necessary for the emission regulation of non-road special motor vehicles" have been promulgated on January 2014. By the amendment of the "Announcement that prescribes details of safety regulations for road vehicles" promulgated on same date, the difference between Japanese technical regulation of Attachment 43 and NRMM gtr has been decreased further.

Power ranges (kW) and test mode Applied from Limits (g/kWh) diesel smoke
(m-1)
CO NMHC NOX PM
Diesel powered special vehicles and non-road special vehicles (Steady 8-mode discrete or RMC and transient NRTC cycle) at or above 19 kW, and less than 37 kW * 1. Oct. 2016 5 0.7 4 0.03 0.50
at or above 37 kW, and less than 56 kW * 1. Oct. 2016 5 0.7 4 0.025 0.50
at or above 56 kW, and less than 75 kW 1. Oct. 2015 5 0.19 0.4 0.02 0.50
at or above 75 kW, and less than 130 kW 1. Oct. 2015 5 0.19 0.4 0.02 0.50
at or above 130 kW, and less than 560 kW 1. Oct. 2014 3.5 0.19 20.4/td> 0.02 0.50

The values with * mark, are not changed from the values from 2011 to 2013.

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Emission limits to be applicable to the registration system of the low emission construction machines.

At the construction works directly controlled by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, MLIT, it is fundamentally requested to use the registered machines by the registration system of the low emission construction machines. The applicable construction machines are that are powered by diesel engine at or above 8 kW. The details of this registration system have been specified by the Notifications by MLIT and its Announcements to the related industries associations.

Machineries to be installed Land-use non-road machineries Motor vehicle
Transportable (Handheld or Non-handheld) Never operated on public road May be operated on public road
19 < kW 19 ≥ kW 19 < kW 19 ≥ kW
Legislative control no no Act for NSMV no Motor Vehicles Act Motor Vehicles Act
Setting limits no no Air pollution Control Law no Air pollution Control Law Air pollution Control Law
Registration system of law emission machines diesel < 8kW diesel < 8kW diesel
Voluntary regulation of LEMA applied applied no applied no no
Except engine applied in Registration system

Notes ;

: The colored cells show the engine, whose limits are specified based on Air Pollution Control Law and which are controlled by either "Motor Vehicles Act" or "Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicle". In the above table, the latter is abbreviated to Act for NCMV.

: The colored cells show the engine to be applicable to the registration system of the low emission construction machines.

: The colored cells show the engine, which are controlled by Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicle and, therefore, are not applicable to the registration system of the low emission construction machines.

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